1) The Politics – Aristotle
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Influence from the ideas, arguments and other relics from his erudite became ideological platform tame Europe for over 2000 years.
Political arguments of Aristotle is a most famous work about the concept from which countries and governments shape. Although only discuss the state and the institutions of ancient Greece, but his works laid the foundation for modern political science.
In the work, he wrote his thoughts clearly, with sublime precision. According to Aristotle, a good person is not enough. If good people who do not actively participate in the political life of the regime, the regime which risk becoming degenerate and become a bad regime. “The Politics” His work is considered fundamental for Western Politics.
Information Author: Aristotle is a philosopher and scholar of ancient Greece, Plato’s pupil and teacher of Alexander the Great. Remove his pen includes various fields such as physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, ethics, biology, and zoology. He was seen as laying the groundwork for logic courses. He also established an approach to philosophy begins with observation and experience before going to abstract thinking. Together with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is one of the three pillars of the ancient Greek civilization.
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2) The Spirit of the Laws – Charles de Montesquieu
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Legislation spirit is a treatise on political doctrine Baron de Montesquieu was published as anonymous in 1748. First it was published anonymously in part because of his writings Montesquieu wanted to avoid censorship, then it quickly translated into many other languages. 1751 Catholic Church claim this book included the book list Forbidden. However, the political doctrine of Montesquieu greatly influenced the work of other scholars, most notably: Ekaterina II who wrote Nakaz; The Congress of Constitutional Convention delegates of the United States; and Alexis de Tocqueville, who applied methods of research Monstequieu into American society, the book Democracy in America.
Montesquieu spent nearly twenty years researching and writing this book, covering the topics of politics, law, sociology, anthropology, and offers more than 3,000 citations. In his political treatise, he has defended the theory of constitutionalism and separation of powers, abolished slavery, protect civil liberties and the rule of law, and the idea that the legal institutions and must reflect the political and geographic characteristics of each community society separate
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3) The Social Contract – Jean Jacques Rousseau
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Social Contract is one of the most important works of the Enlightenment, paving the way for the French Revolution and the Declaration of Human Rights in 1789. Rousseau writes in the foreword: “With human nature as we know it, and the probable nature of the law, I want to find out in the order of a civil society can have a rule rules yet robust and equitable … “
In this journey, Rousseau and thinkers before him as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were started from primitive human identity in its natural state. The first introductory chapter Rousseau wrote: “Man is born free, but where they are chained.” For Rousseau, liberty is an essential condition for the human is a human. In the natural state of every man is his own master, but an individual can not fight with nature for self-preservation that must coexist with each other in order to have enough to survive.
From the first primitive society is the family, people clustered into larger communities, but in the wider community should have laws to executive order so that the welfare and freedom of each human remains guaranteed. The question is who will be the “who” pose these laws when individuals are equal? Rousseau government denies monarchical model and Hobbes proposed by Grotius, and explained that a reasonable civil society, the situation can only be created by the consent of everyone involved. Or in other words by a social contract established by everyone and everyone must adhere.
Rousseau wrote: “What man loses by accepting the social contract is the freedom of nature and the limitless in what he wants to do and what he wants to keep the gain; in return what he recegitimived the freedom of a civilized and leate ownership of what he has. ” “Man” competent make a law to govern a community formed by the social contract, according to Rousseau, is none other than to everyone at the same gives that right to an artificial humans called “Council Supreme “(sovereign) includes everyone; Artificial human being that is formed by the social contract and will have its own life. The will of the people own this artificial is the will of the collective, called “collective willpower” to achieve the common good for the whole community.
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4) Second Treatise of Government – John Locke
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The book is one of the works is considered the greatest of political philosophy and political science of humanity. Second Treatise of Government, which its author John Locke as one of the greatest philosophers of the seventeenth century Europe, is the author of the treatise on human cognition, two treatises on governments, some thoughts on Catholic education.
Each person in the natural state is simultaneously judge who is both the natural law enforcement, but the people, the bias for yourself, so emotional and vengeance still often take them too far, and the first sentence of overheating in their own cases, as well as negligence and apathy has made them too remiss in the case of others.
Their personal human capital is the freedom from a birthright, and their property, more or less, are their own and of their own decisions rather than of conquest; otherwise, it is not the owner.
People have the right to act as the supreme power and continue working on their own legislation, or set up a new form of government, or are still under the old form, but is placed in the hands of man, according to what they think is good.
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5) The Starfish and the Spider – Ori Brafman
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If you cut off a spider’s head, it will die. But starfish has no head, and if you cut off one of its legs, the legs will quickly grow into a new starfish!
Starfish organizations like Wikipedia, craigslist, Skype or eBay have changed the face of the whole world. Is there any structure to be more successful starfish structure or not? And no way to deal with the starfish organization or not?
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